The patients have the right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the published article.


In cases of experiments in human subjects, the authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible Institutional and National Committees on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration.

The declaration of authorization by the competent Bioethics Committee (when required in accordance with current legislation, e.g. for interventionist research papers, research involving patients, studies of patients-witnesses, etc.) must include the protocol number and date of authorization. In cases of experiments on animals, the authors should be asked to indicate whether the national legislation for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

See more about publication ethics:

  • Declaration of Helsinki, World Medical Association

  • Journal of American Medical Association

(World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, Ethical Principles for Medical Research involving human subjects, 2013)

  • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors

  • European Commission

(Horizontal legislation for the protection of animals used for scientific purposes)